Former investment bank FX trader: Risk management part II
Firstly, thanks for the overwhelming comments and feedback. Genuinely really appreciated. I am pleased 500+ of you find it useful. If you didn't read the first post you can do so here: risk management part I. You'll need to do so in order to make sense of the topic. As ever please comment/reply below with questions or feedback and I'll do my best to get back to you. Part II
Letting stops breathe
When to change a stop
Entering and exiting winning positions
Letting stops breathe
We talked earlier about giving a position enough room to breathe so it is not stopped out in day-to-day noise. Let’s consider the chart below and imagine you had a trailing stop. It would be super painful to miss out on the wider move just because you left a stop that was too tight. Imagine being long and stopped out on a meaningless retracement ... ouch! One simple technique is simply to look at your chosen chart - let’s say daily bars. And then look at previous trends and use the measuring tool. Those generally look something like this and then you just click and drag to measure. For example if we wanted to bet on a downtrend on the chart above we might look at the biggest retracement on the previous uptrend. That max drawdown was about 100 pips or just under 1%. So you’d want your stop to be able to withstand at least that. If market conditions have changed - for example if CVIX has risen - and daily ranges are now higher you should incorporate that. If you know a big event is coming up you might think about that, too. The human brain is a remarkable tool and the power of the eye-ball method is not to be dismissed. This is how most discretionary traders do it. There are also more analytical approaches. Some look at the Average True Range (ATR). This attempts to capture the volatility of a pair, typically averaged over a number of sessions. It looks at three separate measures and takes the largest reading. Think of this as a moving average of how much a pair moves. For example, below shows the daily move in EURUSD was around 60 pips before spiking to 140 pips in March. Conditions were clearly far more volatile in March. Accordingly, you would need to leave your stop further away in March and take a correspondingly smaller position size. ATR is available on pretty much all charting systems Professional traders tend to use standard deviation as a measure of volatility instead of ATR. There are advantages and disadvantages to both. Averages are useful but can be misleading when regimes switch (see above chart). Once you have chosen a measure of volatility, stop distance can then be back-tested and optimised. For example does 2x ATR work best or 5x ATR for a given style and time horizon? Discretionary traders may still eye-ball the ATR or standard deviation to get a feeling for how it has changed over time and what ‘normal’ feels like for a chosen study period - daily, weekly, monthly etc.
Reasons to change a stop
As a general rule you should be disciplined and not change your stops. Remember - losers average losers. This is really hard at first and we’re going to look at that in more detail later. There are some good reasons to modify stops but they are rare. One reason is if another risk management process demands you stop trading and close positions. We’ll look at this later. In that case just close out your positions at market and take the loss/gains as they are. Another is event risk. If you have some big upcoming data like Non Farm Payrolls that you know can move the market +/- 150 pips and you have no edge going into the release then many traders will take off or scale down their positions. They’ll go back into the positions when the data is out and the market has quietened down after fifteen minutes or so. This is a matter of some debate - many traders consider it a coin toss and argue you win some and lose some and it all averages out. Trailing stops can also be used to ‘lock in’ profits. We looked at those before. As the trade moves in your favour (say up if you are long) the stop loss ratchets with it. This means you may well end up ‘stopping out’ at a profit - as per the below example. The mighty trailing stop loss order It is perfectly reasonable to have your stop loss move in the direction of PNL. This is not exposing you to more risk than you originally were comfortable with. It is taking less and less risk as the trade moves in your favour. Trend-followers in particular love trailing stops. One final question traders ask is what they should do if they get stopped out but still like the trade. Should they try the same trade again a day later for the same reasons? Nope. Look for a different trade rather than getting emotionally wed to the original idea. Let’s say a particular stock looked cheap based on valuation metrics yesterday, you bought, it went down and you got stopped out. Well, it is going to look even better on those same metrics today. Maybe the market just doesn’t respect value at the moment and is driven by momentum. Wait it out. Otherwise, why even have a stop in the first place?
Entering and exiting winning positions
Take profits are the opposite of stop losses. They are also resting orders, left with the broker, to automatically close your position if it reaches a certain price. Imagine I’m long EURUSD at 1.1250. If it hits a previous high of 1.1400 (150 pips higher) I will leave a sell order to take profit and close the position. The rookie mistake on take profits is to take profit too early. One should start from the assumption that you will win on no more than half of your trades. Therefore you will need to ensure that you win more on the ones that work than you lose on those that don’t. Sad to say but incredibly common: retail traders often take profits way too early This is going to be the exact opposite of what your emotions want you to do. We are going to look at that in the Psychology of Trading chapter. Remember: let winners run. Just like stops you need to know in advance the level where you will close out at a profit. Then let the trade happen. Don’t override yourself and let emotions force you to take a small profit. A classic mistake to avoid. The trader puts on a trade and it almost stops out before rebounding. As soon as it is slightly in the money they spook and cut out, instead of letting it run to their original take profit. Do not do this.
Entering positions with limit orders
That covers exiting a position but how about getting into one? Take profits can also be left speculatively to enter a position. Sometimes referred to as “bids” (buy orders) or “offers” (sell orders). Imagine the price is 1.1250 and the recent low is 1.1205. You might wish to leave a bid around 1.2010 to enter a long position, if the market reaches that price. This way you don’t need to sit at the computer and wait. Again, typically traders will use tech analysis to identify attractive levels. Again - other traders will cluster with your orders. Just like the stop loss we need to bake that in. So this time if we know everyone is going to buy around the recent low of 1.1205 we might leave the take profit bit a little bit above there at 1.1210 to ensure it gets done. Sure it costs 5 more pips but how mad would you be if the low was 1.1207 and then it rallied a hundred points and you didn’t have the trade on?! There are two more methods that traders often use for entering a position. Scaling in is one such technique. Let’s imagine that you think we are in a long-term bulltrend for AUDUSD but experiencing a brief retracement. You want to take a total position of 500,000 AUD and don’t have a strong view on the current price action. You might therefore leave a series of five bids of 100,000. As the price moves lower each one gets hit. The nice thing about scaling in is it reduces pressure on you to pick the perfect level. Of course the risk is that not all your orders get hit before the price moves higher and you have to trade at-market. Pyramiding is the second technique. Pyramiding is for take profits what a trailing stop loss is to regular stops. It is especially common for momentum traders. Pyramiding into a position means buying more as it goes in your favour Again let’s imagine we’re bullish AUDUSD and want to take a position of 500,000 AUD. Here we add 100,000 when our first signal is reached. Then we add subsequent clips of 100,000 when the trade moves in our favour. We are waiting for confirmation that the move is correct. Obviously this is quite nice as we humans love trading when it goes in our direction. However, the drawback is obvious: we haven’t had the full amount of risk on from the start of the trend. You can see the attractions and drawbacks of both approaches. It is best to experiment and choose techniques that work for your own personal psychology as these will be the easiest for you to stick with and build a disciplined process around.
Risk:reward and win ratios
Be extremely skeptical of people who claim to win on 80% of trades. Most traders will win on roughly 50% of trades and lose on 50% of trades. This is why risk management is so important! Once you start keeping a trading journal you’ll be able to see how the win/loss ratio looks for you. Until then, assume you’re typical and that every other trade will lose money. If that is the case then you need to be sure you make more on the wins than you lose on the losses. You can see the effect of this below. A combination of win % and risk:reward ratio determine if you are profitable A typical rule of thumb is that a ratio of 1:3 works well for most traders. That is, if you are prepared to risk 100 pips on your stop you should be setting a take profit at a level that would return you 300 pips. One needn’t be religious about these numbers - 11 pips and 28 pips would be perfectly fine - but they are a guideline. Again - you should still use technical analysis to find meaningful chart levels for both the stop and take profit. Don’t just blindly take your stop distance and do 3x the pips on the other side as your take profit. Use the ratio to set approximate targets and then look for a relevant resistance or support level in that kind of region.
Not all returns are equal. Suppose you are examining the track record of two traders. Now, both have produced a return of 14% over the year. Not bad! The first trader, however, made hundreds of small bets throughout the year and his cumulative PNL looked like the left image below. The second trader made just one bet — he sold CADJPY at the start of the year — and his PNL looked like the right image below with lots of large drawdowns and volatility. Would you rather have the first trading record or the second? If you were investing money and betting on who would do well next year which would you choose? Of course all sensible people would choose the first trader. Yet if you look only at returns one cannot distinguish between the two. Both are up 14% at that point in time. This is where the Sharpe ratio helps . A high Sharpe ratio indicates that a portfolio has better risk-adjusted performance. One cannot sensibly compare returns without considering the risk taken to earn that return. If I can earn 80% of the return of another investor at only 50% of the risk then a rational investor should simply leverage me at 2x and enjoy 160% of the return at the same level of risk. This is very important in the context of Execution Advisor algorithms (EAs) that are popular in the retail community. You must evaluate historic performance by its risk-adjusted return — not just the nominal return. Incidentally look at the Sharpe ratio of ones that have been live for a year or more ... Otherwise an EA developer could produce two EAs: the first simply buys at 1000:1 leverage on January 1st ; and the second sells in the same manner. At the end of the year, one of them will be discarded and the other will look incredible. Its risk-adjusted return, however, would be abysmal and the odds of repeated success are similarly poor.
The Sharpe ratio works like this:
It takes the average returns of your strategy;
It deducts from these the risk-free rate of return i.e. the rate anyone could have got by investing in US government bonds with very little risk;
It then divides this total return by its own volatility - the more smooth the return the higher and better the Sharpe, the more volatile the lower and worse the Sharpe.
For example, say the return last year was 15% with a volatility of 10% and US bonds are trading at 2%. That gives (15-2)/10 or a Sharpe ratio of 1.3. As a rule of thumb a Sharpe ratio of above 0.5 would be considered decent for a discretionary retail trader. Above 1 is excellent. You don’t really need to know how to calculate Sharpe ratios. Good trading software will do this for you. It will either be available in the system by default or you can add a plug-in.
VAR is another useful measure to help with drawdowns. It stands for Value at Risk. Normally people will use 99% VAR (conservative) or 95% VAR (aggressive). Let’s say you’re long EURUSD and using 95% VAR. The system will look at the historic movement of EURUSD. It might spit out a number of -1.2%. A 5% VAR of -1.2% tells you you should expect to lose 1.2% on 5% of days, whilst 95% of days should be better than that This means it is expected that on 5 days out of 100 (hence the 95%) the portfolio will lose 1.2% or more. This can help you manage your capital by taking appropriately sized positions. Typically you would look at VAR across your portfolio of trades rather than trade by trade. Sharpe ratios and VAR don’t give you the whole picture, though. Legendary fund manager, Howard Marks of Oaktree, notes that, while tools like VAR and Sharpe ratios are helpful and absolutely necessary, the best investors will also overlay their own judgment. Investors can calculate risk metrics like VaR and Sharpe ratios (we use them at Oaktree; they’re the best tools we have), but they shouldn’t put too much faith in them. The bottom line for me is that risk management should be the responsibility of every participant in the investment process, applying experience, judgment and knowledge of the underlying investments.Howard Marks of Oaktree Capital What he’s saying is don’t misplace your common sense. Do use these tools as they are helpful. However, you cannot fully rely on them. Both assume a normal distribution of returns. Whereas in real life you get “black swans” - events that should supposedly happen only once every thousand years but which actually seem to happen fairly often. These outlier events are often referred to as “tail risk”. Don’t make the mistake of saying “well, the model said…” - overlay what the model is telling you with your own common sense and good judgment.
Coming up in part III
Available here Squeezes and other risks Market positioning Bet correlation Crap trades, timeouts and monthly limits *** Disclaimer:This content is not investment advice and you should not place any reliance on it. The views expressed are the author's own and should not be attributed to any other person, including their employer.
We are already in a crashed market, just not in the traditional sense.
Hear me out boys, over the last few months we have experienced unprecedented growth on the heels of one of the worst economic situation since the great depression. Bears would have you believe that this growth is due to moron bulls pumping the market. However, I have a different theory that recently come to fruition. We have experienced growth not because of any sort of market rally but because of the decline of the Dollar. This even becomes more apparent that there may even be other forces at work given in the past half year Forex pyramid schemes have been popping up guaranteeing free money to young uneducated people by just following "signals." The stock market will not "crash" as long as the decline of the dollar keeps up. TL;DR- the market rally is not due to any good economic outcome but because of the stagflation of the dollar and the fleeing away from the currency. Not only that but this may have been orchestrated by external forces. P.S.- Idk if i articulated this well im bad at that and also I could just be a retard
Hey guys/gals. I’ve kinda got two questions in here, the main one is about FairForex though. Anybody have any experience dealing with them? I know they’re offshore/unregulated and that can be sketchy/has potential to be fucked. But the group I’m with all use them and have good things to say. 1:400 leverage, only a minimum of $100, and decent spreads. Not heard too many gripes about customer service or fucky withdrawal methods. I’m only looking to start with about 200 bucks on my live account (doing DEMO right now). I’ve got a TD Ameritrade account and would like to use them but I can’t get approved for margins with that little initial capital. And for part two So I’m about two months in to this forex game. I was brought in by two of my buddies from HS and they got me signed up with their team on IML Academy ( I know I know). I’ve found that they’re 46 video academy has been just OK. Honestly I find that these “gurus” or leaders are pretty awful at actually teaching and explaining things, though it has done a good job of pointing me in the right direction in being able to research further about certain topics. The team I’m on seems to be very supportive, they don’t push me to do recruiting or anything. Zoom chats at least every day, though 3/4 are about the “winning mentality” with the other 1 being about trading. But even when I tap in for that one those guys are honestly terrible teachers, pretty bad at explaining thought processes and reasoning behind taking certain trades. They’ve got me in two signal chats that usually put up at least 400-1000 pips a week depending on if they’re just doing pairs or if they throw some Indices in there too. Should I stick around and use the signal chat to at leastbreak even while I learn my way, or just cut my losses and figure all this shit out and be my own self made man? Anyone been in my shoes before, shitty pyramid scheme but has a good team? Also anyone have thoughts on the harmonic scanner? That’s the tool they have us laying for TL;DR Anyone have thoughts on FairForex as a broker? Also I’m in IML Academy, find that the videos are pretty bogus but my team is good. Should I stick around?
Starting gaining interest in Forex and was curious as to how to go about it so my friend and I started watching YouTube videos. We came across a trader named Meg. Her YouTube channel is called DaRichFamily and her instagram is lovelymeg_. After watching several of her videos and watching her live on Instagram a few times we were convinced that she wasn’t one of the mentors out here scamming people. So we paid the 235 and joined only to find out that the “daily signals “ they promised to give you so that you can “earn while you learn” are only accessible once you recruit 3 people and they each recruit 3 people. HIGHLY misleading and definitely a pyramid scheme. Trust no one on YouTube you’re better off learning this stuff yourself
FOREX Trading - Viable option to speed up FI/RE or just a waste of time?
Hi all, I have been lurking on this subreddit for the better part of a couple of months and I have trying to build up a wealth of information on how to achieve financial independence. I'm 22 years old, have just graduated from a computer science degree, zero debt, but also zero wealth, and I'm starting a 60k job within a month. Getting to the basis of the question, I have been doing a lot of research on Forex or foreign exchange trading and seemed to find a large number of testimonials on its success from a number of different individuals actively trading daily and yes, timing the market. I have also read a lot of material from this subreddit and it's clear that the general consensus is that timing the market is completely impossible and that index funds such as Vanguard are one of the most tried and tested, as well as most likely methods to increase income in the long term. My main question is, are there any people within this subreddit that have experience with FOREX and if there is any advice they can give on this topic? I'm interested in any reading material to better inform myself on this topic or if it is in fact more of a scam that in the end will lose me money and time. I also have friends who have tried to recruit me to groups which cost hundreds of dollars a month where they educate and provide "mentors" which give signals as to which pairs to invest in. To me these groups seem to be pyramid type schemes as through recruiting they pay less on their membership and possibly earn from whoever they recruit so this seems a lot like scam material. Any advice or information is greatly appreciated.
I wanted to write a quick post in answer to the people who routinely make claims I have a history of stealing from people in my previous company and base this upon a blog they read. If you would like to discuss this further, please make a post and link it to me to engage on. I will do so as long as we deal with the facts of how a PAMM company really works. I won't engage in circular debates where the essential point is, "I don't believe you". You don't have to - that's not how any of this works. Just fact check.
I want to avoid Google ranking on this post. Although for my personal 'PR' it would be beneficial to aim to rank something answering claims, at some points in this some others involved in the company will not really come over in the best light. I assume it's likely these people are still involved things (Not spoke with them for 5 yrs) - It'd be unfair to rank bad PR on them. The failure of the company was squarely due to me. Anything anyone else did either would not have happened or not have mattered if I'd done better. I do not want anything I do now to further hinder anyone. So I will refer to names by only one letter (or number if applicable).
I found it strange at the time this ended up centred around the ponzi scheme side of things. There was a reasonable question to be asked and answered as to if it was a pyramid scheme. Were people signing up just to sign people up, or was there a core product of fair market value. The services sold I'd previously ran at the same sort of price point direct to market - so I felt on fairly good ground on that. Initially I's actually been a bit excited initially, because I was a reader of the blog in question and I liked the work they'd done on pyramid schemes. I thought I'd be able to either validate I was doing things right, or learn how I should be doing them better. I never thought the ponzi side of it would take any more than a few minutes to clear up. But that was not so ... A ponzi scheme was to all intents and purposes impossible. All of our business was done via three different brokers and all of our results publicly tracked with close to real time updates for marketing purposes. Of the three brokers we were using, two of them had good regulation. An off-shore broker had to be used for US clients, so this is the only one with any sort of question mark. All of our results over all the brokers were almost identical (Some execution/costs variance). The two regulated brokers were under different regulators. Most, if not all, the brokers held clients funds in segregated accounts. All brokers would have to have been fully complicit in the scam - and it costs more to get regulated than there was to steal. Logically, it could not have been so. We were using a PAMM model. This works by the client opening a brokerage account and signing a LPoA to allow trades to be copied onto their account. The LPoA grants the company no access to the funds. Money laundering laws also dictate the funds can only be redeemed to same source they were funded. PAMMs are big business. Protection of all parties is built into it, it's a well trusted model. This should have taken no less than 5 minutes to self verify. It could not have been a ponzi.
That happened. Turns out if you set up a PAMM in the Netherlands and then let a bunch of people refer investment to it this is classed as running a ... I can't remember exactly and even at the time it was in Dutch so I didn't personally read it all. The underlying problem was not the model in any way. We were told at the time we basically jut had to pay £2,000 for each country we did business in. We were global. At this time the company had neither the money to do that, or pay the fine they gave us for not having the money to do that. My mistaken assumption was that since when you run a PAMM you are basically piggybacking off the broker's licence, all was well and good. This was true - but the problem was sourcing. Paying people to refer investment was what we were fined for when you get right down to it.
This was just a headline. In many ways it's misleading. Firstly, nothing was stolen or even taken. It was lost or given away to clients who'd lost in the PAMMs that went bad. All the money lost was lost trying to get enough money to make good all the PAMMs. So it was not stolen, and there is nothing in anyway to imply that's a suitable word to use. In the blog, no explanation of that is offered. What seems to be inferred is that this was commissions due out to clients that the company kept. Even outside the above mentioned this would be wrong. All affiliates were paid. You will not find a single one who says they were not. Further to that, of all the funds invested into the company (We'll call the company '5') somewhere in the 60 - 70% range was sourced directly by me. Other funds were sourced by my co-founder. Investments were made through passive advertising without them being attributed to a refer. All in all, assuming we did not pay the affiliates and we had this much, $18,000 would be the number. Of the $180,000 somewhere a bit over $100,000 would have been mine. I never took that, and could not have "Stolen" it. I don't see the point in getting super technical on everything by going through how, but the number also probably wasn't $180,000. I think this was an overestimate made in a throw away comment by my co-founder (We'll call her 'M') who was (Justifiably) extremely angry at me at the time she came up with the number and added it in a post (Of this multi paragraph post, this one line and one number was taken - if memory servers, all context was left out when the blogger cited this as stolen. Which would make sense. The post was berating me for losing the money. That didn't fit the narrative.
What Backs the Story?
Of all of the claims of wrongdoing (Apart from the fine, which is documented and true) - there is no evidence proposed for any of the claims made. All of it hinges on a story told to the blogger by one person, who was another of my co-founders 'We'll call her 'E'. E was either a late teenager or very early 20s at the time. In the founding of 5, E was essential. Before 5 I'd been running a service selling trading signals and selling them at $5 a week subscription. I was generating a lot of business (Working all day, every day and having fun with it. Like I did here for a while, but at that time I really was marketing). 5 - 10 people a day could be signing up. I knew nothing at all about how to structure an online business. No listing of new clients to send emails. Nothing about making membership sites with password access etc. I was working off a Wix site I made myself with no on-boarding system in place. The volume of people joining was crushing me. I could not process them and was getting a lot of PayPal disputes. I wanted to send them the stuff. Just did not have the process to ensure this was being done. E stepped in and saved me on that. She made original 5 website (On Wordpress, I believe it was later upgraded to something else). Set up memberships payments. Automated listing. Also she suggested changing the name to what the company became. E made the work I was doing work. After that, she had varying performance. Her gripe in the blog is she was not paid for helping to found the company. Left out of this is the fact she was not paid because she was head of marketing and we were not getting enough clients. Almost all of them coming from me hitting the DMs and signing people up the old fashioned way. On results of trading, everything was going well (and this was my area). Things were going so well people legit through it must be a ponzi! But we did not have in-flow of clients. On this I again blame myself. I sort of assumed this would all work itself out and did not put focus on fixing problems before they became problems. There was a lot of pressure on everyone. E got into a new romantic relationship. I think she was heavily influenced by this person (I found E to be good hearted on the whole). E and M started to get along less and less. Then E and M seemed to hate each other. It all seemed to come from nowhere, but it quickly got to the point me and M felt it was not working with E, and she thought the same. Pretty much everything is based upon the story told to the blogger by E. As I've said before I found her to be a good heart overall and believe she was influenced into doing what she did, and would not have done it on her own gumption. Therefore I won't rip into her; but if you're reading, 'E' (Won't be lol) - that was a bit naughty, wasn't it? Little 'Economic with the truth'.
Why would the blogger post such big claims with no evidence?
People should ask themselves this on the first read through of the blog, to be fair. If you're a single source reporting on a story - tell how you know it's true. I think this mainly came down to revenge. After the ponzi thing I wrote blog line by line ripping the initial blog to bits. It was written in a very cheeky sort of tone, and what I was saying was right. He then played, "My blog's bigger than your blog" , on which he was right. If you think there is some smoking gun here in any way, just email the blogger and ask them how they know. What evidence were they ever given any money was stolen. There was none.
Money taken from the company:
In it's sad and drawn out end, cash on hand and assets within the company got down to around $10,000 and we were due out over 10* this to clients who I wanted to pay back. I was not bringing in new business (It seemed unethical to do until I fixed old problems - this was a miscalculation. No business was the big problem) and there was the 50K fine. The company was essentially bankrupt. I wanted to use the remaining 10K to have one last ditch effort to re-coup losses, or randomly select clients to pay the 10K to. M didn't. At this time we fell out (Forever). I have no idea what happened to that 10K. I think M probably kept it. At the time I was livid about that - but to be honest, after all the work she did she deserved something. Losing was not her fault. To 'M' if you're reading (Won't be), I'm sorry.
What went wrong?
I was not good enough. When I got ahead I thought I was coasting. I came from a background of having nothing and as soon as I started to make a few grand I assumed I was gliding to being a millionaire. I stopped learning. Stopped improving. I never watered what I planted, and it withered and died. I fail. Turns out you can not coast up a learning curve without ending up on your arse.
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The System serves commonwealths and territories as follows: the New York Bank serves the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; the San Francisco Bank serves American Samoa, Guam, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. The Board of Governors revised the branch boundaries of the System in February 1996. free forex signals As originally envisioned, each of the 12 Reserve Banks was intended to operate independently from the other Reserve Banks. Variation was expected in discount rates--the interest rate that commercial banks were charged for borrowing funds from a Reserve Bank. The setting of a separately determined discount rate appropriate to each District was considered the most important tool of monetary policy at that time. The concept of national economic policymaking was not well developed, and the impact of open market operations--purchases and sales of U.S. government securities--on policymaking was less significant. As the nation's economy became more integrated and more complex, through advances in technology, communications, transportation, and financial services, the effective conduct of monetary policy began to require increased collaboration and coordination throughout the System. This was accomplished in part through revisions to the Federal Reserve Act in 1933 and 1935 that together created the modern-day Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC). forex trading signals The Depository Institutions Deregulation and Monetary Control Act of 1980 (Monetary Control Act) introduced an even greater degree of coordination among Reserve Banks with respect to the pricing of financial services offered to depository institutions. There has also been a trend among Reserve Banks to centralize or consolidate many of their financial services and support functions and to standardize others. Reserve Banks have become more efficient by entering into intra-System service agreements that allocate responsibilities for services and functions that are national in scope among each of the 12 Reserve Banks. free forex signals The U.S. Approach to Central Banking The framers of the Federal Reserve Act purposely rejected the concept of a single central bank. Instead, they provided for a central banking "system" with three salient features: (1) a central governing Board, (2) a decentralized operating structure of 12 Reserve Banks, and (3) a combination of public and private characteristics. Although parts of the Federal Reserve System share some characteristics with private-sector entities, the Federal Reserve was established to serve the public interest. forex signals free There are three key entities in the Federal Reserve System: the Board of Governors, the Federal Reserve Banks (Reserve Banks), and the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC). The Board of Governors, an agency of the federal government that reports to and is directly accountable to Congress, provides general guidance for the System and oversees the 12 Reserve Banks. Within the System, certain responsibilities are shared between the Board of Governors in Washington, D.C., whose members are appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate, and the Federal Reserve Banks and Branches, which constitute the System's operating presence around the country. While the Federal Reserve has frequent communication with executive branch and congressional officials, its decisions are made independently. forex trading signals The Three Key Federal Reserve Entities The Federal Reserve Board of Governors (Board of Governors), the Federal Reserve Banks (Reserve Banks), and the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) make decisions that help promote the health of the U.S. economy and the stability of the U.S. financial system. Three key entities, serving the public interest The framers of the Federal Reserve Act developed a central banking system that would broadly represent the public interest. forex trading signals CONGRESS graphic positioned above the three key Federal Reserve entities' graphics: 'CONGRESS oversees the Federal Reserve System and its entities.' A dotted arrow leads down to the BOARD graphic: 'BOARD OF GOVERNORS is an independent agency of the federal government.' A dotted arrow leads right from the BOARD graphic to the BANKS graphic: 'FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS are the operating arms of the Federal Reserve System and are supervised by the Board of Governors.' Dotted arrows lead left from the BOARD and BANKS graphics to the FOMC graphic: 'FEDERAL OPEN MARKET COMMITTEE consists of the members of the Board of Governors and Reserve Bank presidents. The Chair of the Board is the FOMC Chair. https://www.freeforex-signals.com/ Other Significant Entities Contributing to Federal Reserve Functions Two other groups play important roles in the Federal Reserve System's core functions: forex trading signals depository institutions--banks, thrifts, and credit unions; and Federal Reserve System advisory committees, which make recommendations to the Board of Governors and to the Reserve Banks regarding the System's responsibilities. https://www.freeforex-signals.com/ Depository Institutions Depository institutions offer transaction, or checking, accounts to the public, and may maintain accounts of their own at their local Federal Reserve Banks. Depository institutions are required to meet reserve requirements--that is, to keep a certain amount of cash on hand or in an account at a Reserve Bank based on the total balances in the checking accounts they hold. free forex signals Depository institutions that have higher balances in their Reserve Bank account than they need to meet reserve requirements may lend to other depository institutions that need those funds to satisfy their own reserve requirements. This rate influences interest rates, asset prices and wealth, exchange rates, and thereby, aggregate demand in the economy. The FOMC sets a target for the federal funds rate at its meetings and authorizes actions called open market operations to achieve that target. free forex signals Advisory Councils Four advisory councils assist and advise the Board on matters of public policy. Federal Advisory Council (FAC). This council, established by the Federal Reserve Act, comprises 12 representatives of the banking industry. The FAC ordinarily meets with the Board four times a year, as required by law. Annually, each Reserve Bank chooses one person to represent its District on the FAC. FAC members customarily serve three one-year terms and elect their own officers. Community Depository Institutions Advisory Council (CDIAC). The CDIAC was originally established by the Board of Governors to obtain information and views from thrift institutions (savings and loan institutions and mutual savings banks) and credit unions. More recently, its membership has expanded to include community banks. Like the FAC, the CDIAC provides the Board of Governors with firsthand insight and information about the economy, lending conditions, and other issues. forex trading signals Model Validation Council. This council was established by the Board of Governors in 2012 to provide expert and independent advice on its process to rigorously assess the models used in stress tests of banking institutions. Stress tests are required under the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act. The council is intended to improve the quality of stress tests and thereby strengthen confidence in the stress-testing program. Community Advisory Council (CAC). This council was formed by the Federal Reserve Board in 2015 to offer diverse perspectives on the economic circumstances and financial services needs of consumers and communities, with a particular focus on the concerns of low- and moderate-income populations. The CAC complements the FAC and CDIAC, whose members represent depository institutions. The CAC meets semiannually with members of the Board of Governors. The 15 CAC members serve staggered three-year terms and are selected by the Board through a public nomination process. Federal Reserve Banks also have their own advisory committees. Perhaps the most important of these are committees that advise the Banks on agricultural, small business, and labor matters. The Federal Reserve Board solicits the views of each of these committees biannually. More on https://www.freeforex-signals.com/ free forex signalspresents special offer open trading account with one of the best forex brokers and GET FREE forex Signals via SMS, Email and WhatsApp SIGN UP FOR A FREE TRIAL To Access FREE Forex Signals in the Members Area START FREE 30 DAYS TRIAL on https://www.freeforex-signals.com/
Help! I believe that my husband is involved in a pyramid scheme. He strongly believes in the system and I see all the red flags . It’s causing us to fight because I’m not being supportive of his job and I’m coming off as selfish. I don’t know what to do.
I am currently the breadwinner at home , my husband is out of a job for this year . He has always played soccer and this is the first “job” he has taken up since soccer . He expressed frustration from being at home with no job, nothing to do and not being able to contribute financially . A person he knew told him about forex , that with $250 he could sign up and join the company . That fee would give him access to the learning webpage where there is videos that teach him how to trade , access to the chats among all the people signed up (in that chat they send forex signals that are bound to be a hit in which the member copies and paste and has a chance to trade successfully ) and he could start with some money in his account to start trading . Well after the initial $250 fee there is a $160/monthly to stay in the group and have access to the learning platform and some other perks . A way to avoid the $160 monthly fee is to sign up 3 people which each pay $250 to begin then 160/month to stay in the group . There is residual income you can earn based on how many people you sign up . My husband has been in the group for 3 weeks and I have invested over $600 dollars (the initial startup fee plus money to put into his forex account ) plus $350 on a used iMac so he can use for trading ....he has made no money from trading and has been focusing on recruiting to have the residual income come in . He has recruited 3 people so he will make $75 every 2 weeks , he is reaching close to 12 people now and will start making $300 every 2 weeks. I hear him on the phone and he explains how he has made so much money from forex trading and that encourages people to sign up . But the truth is he has made no money from trading , I have invested money in it and he will be making a residual income based on his recruiting of people . Because he got 3 people in the group he got his 160/month fee waived and turns out that they still removed him from the learning academy in the system because now that he is earning residual he needs to pay for it himself because the learning platform is for people who are not recruiting or haven’t reached the 3 people status . I feel frustrated because 1) I’m the only one working and we are investing money in a system that hasn’t given us anything back 2) he is lying to people saying he is making money from forex and that is a lie , he will be making money from the recruitments 3) I believe it’s a pyramid scheme and he is angry at me because it’s his new job and I’m not being supportive and I’m thinking negatively , he honestly believes that it is not a pyramid scheme ... I don’t know what to do , I don’t want to fight with him but I’m sharing my honest thoughts regarding the system and instead I’m coming off as a bad spouse for not being supportive of his new “job” ....... he is upset because I’m not telling my friends and people I know about the ‘ opportunity ‘so they can sign up , I told him I won’t do it because he is lying about income he is making and he says if he tells them he is making no money that no one will sign up and that later the residual income will come in and it will benefit our family and why am I against something he is doing that will benefit us ..... he says for me not to tell him anything regarding his forex anymore because I don’t understand it and that is why I’m against it ..., I’m a life insurance agent and just completed my one year anniversary with my company and he says that when I first started he recommended people he knew to me without him knowing about my job because he was being supportive and that I’m not doing the same for him ..... do you all think it’s a pyramid scheme ???? Am I wrong for not being supportive even though I believe it’s wrong ????? How do I keep the peace between us ????? His mind is set up that he will succeed in forex and no one can stop him ..... we are in complete disagreement ! Help !!!!!!!!!
I am just now getting into learning the stock market, and have a friend that trades Forex stocks and is making a decent profit on it. He is part of "tradehouse investment group" (on google) and they send him and a few thousand others forex signals every day, telling them exactly what stock to buy/sell and when to do it. They pay a $100 monthly fee I think. I am very doubtful about this as it seems like a scam or pyramid scheme. I was still debating throwing in $50 and just seeing if it is real however.
I’m not sure if this is the right place to post this. I’m fresh out of high school, and I don’t have much money. My friend texted me this and is trying to get me to join this forex program of some sort. I’m very skeptical of this, but he’s pressuring me to do this. Here’s what he said: “So there is one initial payment which is $225. With that $225 investment, not only are you investing that money into something good but also investing in something that can change your life forever. With that $225 you get 70-80+ hours of content that teaches you how to trade in the biggest market in the world (5.7 trillion). Also, you connect and get added into group chats where people have made this their job, high schoolers who are driving Lambos and etc...you’re money is already coming back to you by the knowledge, network and the connections that are being made. You get many benefits, free signals (guaranteed 500 pips a week) and countless resources and mentors you have 24/7 contact with. People are here to help you thrive! Also, their is a monthly payment of $165 that you have to pay if you don’t get 2 people. Use that as motivation to get 2 people and when you get 1 more you start earning a residual income of $1800 a year which is split up in Friday weekly payments of ($37.50). Now if you refer 12 people you begin to earn an income of $7,200 a year...and from then it keeps increasing.” It sounds like a pyramid scheme to me. What do you guys think?
Those of you who are far more experienced that i am, what are some red flags you can let everyone here know when traders try to sell newcomers "signals" or "training"
I go through my instagram and see all these people selling "training" and courses to learn forex. The group like astroforex was caught being a little more than they should have. with proof that their cars were rented. Or with FIP (forever in profit) being a pyramid like scheme or Copy profit share. Have any of you heard of these people? To those of you who are more experienced and have been doing this for years. What do you all think of groups like this selling signals to new traders that dont know much about trading?
So, I have a "friend" who I used to hang out with in high school but after that we never spoke anymore until recently. I saw him on my recomended friends on facebook and added him and after like a month or two I saw him posting pics of these wild stacks of money and saying he made 62k in the last 6 months, etc... So, I asked what he was doing and he told me he was trading with forex. So I researched and obviously Forex is a real thing and all okay. Now what I'm having a hard time understanding is what hes "selling" me. He is apparently is with a group called Lions of Forex... The leader of the group all he does is flash how much hes helped people make money trough forex and flash his expensive cars and condos... anyways, at first it was $100 a month for webinars, classes and guides for you to read and learn Forex and what they call SIGNALS which I believe is when there is a good trade taking place they let you know so you can get in it. Now the price for that has gone up to $399 a month for the same thing or just $100 for the signals alone. Now, has anyone else heard of these so called Forex groups? Are they legit? or are they just a pyramid scheme? I know he gets commission I guess for me signing up under his name. But I dont know... what do you guys think? TLTR; A dude I know is making lots of money (from what he shows) trading currency with Forex. Hes part of a group that charges you a monthly fee for signals to do the same.
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